Unit testing is a software development process in which the smallest testable parts of an application, called units, are individually and independently scrutinized for proper operation. A unit is the smallest testable part of an application that can be tested in isolation from the rest of the code.
Unit testing aims to isolate each part of the program and show that individual parts are correct (valid). If a defect does occur when executing a series or group of related tests, then either the cause must be determined and corrected, or it must be shown that this particular combination will never happen.
This requires knowledge about how different elements interact within the whole system and how they work independently. Unit testing can be done regardless of the specific function or purpose of the module. The method may also encompass other types of black-box testing.
Unit tests are typically written and run by software developers to ensure that code meets its design and behaves as intended. A related practice is regression testing, which tests a system after changes have been made to its source code; this ensures that previously working features still work after modifications such as bug fixes or new functionality.
Objective of Unit Testing
The objectives of unit testing are clear and well-defined. We can define the objectives as verifying code correctness down to every function and procedure by isolating the code sections. To fix bugs in the early development cycle and save cost. Unit testing is also done to understand the code base, make changes quickly, and help with code reuse.
Types of Unit Testing
Unit testing can be divided into two types, manual and automated unit testing. Manual, as the name suggests, is the type in which the testing is done using people. Manual unit testing isn’t quite popular these days as it had some drawbacks, in which cost, time, and isolation of individual units were the most significant ones.
Automated unit testing happens without human intervention on the execution side, whereas the testers handle the creative side. The execution side is automated using scripts, custom codes, and programmable testing environments.
So to conclude, unit testing is done to isolate code sections to determine their correctness and ensure that they perform their intended tasks without bugs.
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